: ( doc- CorelDraw11)

: ( doc- CorelDraw11)

. ,
,Q ,L , , .
1 .
, F,
10,5 500 3500 70 13,6
16,5 82 18,1
5 1650 230 22 70
22,5 6500 5000 101 25
28,5 115 31,2
10,5 4400 115 17,5
16,5 125 21
10 6300 1900 260 4 70
22,5 5000 145 27
28,5 170 34,8
10,5 4400 145 20
16,5 165 25
15 6300 2300 260 5,3 70
22,5 4400 185 31
28,5 210 41
10,5 4000 155 22,5
16,5 175 26,5
15/3 6300 2300 260 7 70
22,5 5000 190 24
28,5 220 43,5
10,5 4400 175 23,5
16,5 195 28,5
20/5. 6300 2400 260 8,5 70
22,5 5000 220 36
28,5 255 46,5
10,5 5000 255 35
16,5 280 42,5
30/5. 6300 2750 300 12 70
22,5 6760 315 52
28,5 345 62
10,5 365 47
16,5 425 56.5
50/10. 6760 5250 3150 300 18 70
22,5 465 66.5
28,5 900 78



1. .

1.1. .

()

= + t

( ) = 1 hr h +1

, 1 = 8,12; hr = 0,12; h = 1, 1 = 0,15;

= 8,12 0,12 1,0 + 0,15 = 7,15.

( )

t = h.. + hr + h +2, , h..=1,0; 2 = 0,20 (.. 36) t = 1,0 + 0,12 + 2,4 + 0,20 = 3,72;

= 7,15 + 3,72 = 10,87.

1 = 10,87 0,15 = 10,72.

0,6. ( ) 10,800. ,

= 10,72 + 1 = 10,72+0,15=10,87젠 10,800 10,72 = 0,08

t = t + 0,08 = 3,72 + 0,08 = 3,8.

= 3,8 + 7,15 = 10,95.

= 1/8*36 = 4,5

0,6 : = 10,80 + 4,5 + 0,6 + 0,2 = 16,100.

1.2 .

= 250 (.. 12,0 > 6,0, Q = 20/5 < 30)

- : ht = 60. =250; =50. 12.;

- h = (1 1 )*⠠ h = 0,715 0,511,

10 14

h = 800.

- :

h > 0,5 + 0,33 h; h = 0,5 + 0s,33*0,8 = 0,764

h > 1,5b; h = 1,5*0,5 = 0,750

h < 1,2. h = 800.

2. .

2.1.

/

, /

.

. -

,

/2

1 2 3 4 5
I.
1.

/ 36 :

1350 1,1 1485
2. : 50 1,3 65
3. ( ): 400 1,2 480
4. 2: 350 1,3 455
5. : 150 1,3 195
: 2680
7. . .12,6-16,2(d=25), r=2,5/3: 0,25*3,6*1,0*2,5=2,25/=2250/ 2250 1,1 2500
8. . .7,8-12,6 . 11,4-12,6, r=2,5/3, r=0,4/2: 0,25*3,6*1,0*2,5+1,2*1,0*0,4=2,73 2730 1,1 3000
9. . .0,0-7,8 . 1,8-7,8, r=2,5/3, r=0,4/2: 0,25*1,8*1,0*2,5+0,6*1,0*0,4=3,52 3520 1,1 3900
: 9400

2.2 .( gn = 0,95)

. .1. : 3,45*12*36/2=745,2; (180/2)*1,1=99, 1,1- gf. g<0,95 F1=(745,2+99)*0,95=802., F2 = 2F1 =1604 .

, 6,6: F=(2,5*5,4+0,4*1,2)*12*1,1*0,95=175,31; , : F=3,52*6*1,1*0,95=22,07; F=115*1,1*0,95=120,2, Gn =115- ;

. : F=0,5*0,6*3,8*25*1,1*0,95=32,9; F=0,5*0,7*6,75*25*1,1*0,95=61,72. : F=0,5*0,6*3,8*25*1,1*0,95=32,9;

F=[0,5*0,25*10,05*2+(0,9+3*0,4)0,5(1,2-2*0,25)]25*1,1*0,95=84,84.

. . 12 III , 2.01.07-85 , s=1,0, V=4/>2/ m=1 K=1,2-0,1V=1,2-0,1*4=0,8, .. Km=0,8. km=1*0,8, gf =1,4, g =0,95; : F= s*k*m* (i / 2) gf*g= =1,5*0,8*12*(36/2)*1,4*0,95=344,7.; F=2*344,7=689,4.

. .

=500 =6300


= 12000 = 12000

1,3


Q=200. 36-2*0,85=34,3. =630, =500, G=8,5; Fn,max=220; Fn,min=60.

gf =1,1;g =0,95 Fmax=220*1,1*0,95=229,9;

Fmin=60*1,1*0,95=62,7.

:

max=min=200+85*0,5*1,1*0,95=7,45

20

gi =0,85; Dmax=229,9*0,85*2,95=576,47;

Dmin=62,7*0,85*2,95=157,22.,S=2,95- ; gI=0,7 2Dmax = 2*229,9*0,7*2,95=949,49.

=7,45*0,85*2,95=18,7.

. 2.01.07-85 II , w=0,23 (230/2). /2L=16,8/(3*36)=0,156<0,5 :

-     = 0,8,

-     = -0,5

wm :

-     5 , , =0,5: wm1= 300*0,5*0,8=120/2;

-     10, =0,65: wm2= 300*0,65*0,8=156/2;

-     20, =0,85: w3= 300*0,85*0,8=204/2;

-     16,8 : wm4=wm2+(( wm3-wm2)/10)(1-10)= 156+((204-156)/10*(16,8-10)=189/2;

-     10,8 : wm5=wm2+(( wm3-wm2)/10)(1-10)= 156+((204-156)/10*(10,8-10)=160/2;

, 10,8:

wm=2t = {2*[120*5² + 120+156 *(10-5)(10-5 + 5)+ 156+160(10,8-10)

² 2 2 2 2

*(10,8-10 +10)]}/10,8² =140,5/2;

2

wms=(0,45/0,8)*140,5=79/2.

13,8 gf =1,4, g=0,95:

- =140,5*12*1,4*0,95=2242,4/;

-     s=79*12*1,4*0,95=1260,8/.

.10,8:

W=wm4-wm5(1-)gfg(-s)=0,189+0,160(16,8-13,8)*6*1,4*0,95(0,8+0,5)=21

2                                                         2

.

1 - 0 1 - 2 2 - 1
M N M N M N Q
1 1 86,11 1041,8 -100,6 1162 38,24 1342,6 19,42

2

3

1

0,9

69,21

62,29

344,7

310,23

8,89

8,0

344,7

310,2

6,87

6,18

344,7

310,23

6,87

6,18

4

5

1

0,9

-53,18

-47,86

0

0

-53,18

-47,86

0

0

-65,56

-59,0

0

0

6,28

5,65

6

7

1

0,9

-34,29

-30,86

0

0

-34,29

-30,86

0

0

-148,1

-133,3

0

0

7,17

6,45

Dmax

8

9

1

0,9

-140,4

-126,4

0

0

205,5

184,9

576,5

518,8

-58,65

-52,79

576,5

518,8

-36,94

-33,25

Dmin

10

11

1

0,9

-54,79

-49,31

0

0

39,54

35,59

157,2

141,5

-63,56

-57,2

157,2

141,5

-14,42

-12,98

Ҡ

12

13

1

0,9

-6,48

-5,83

0

0

-6,48

-5,83

0

0

40,6

36,54

0

0

8,25

7,43

Ҡ

14

15

1

0,9

-1,25

-1,13

0

0

-1,25

-1,13

0

0

-12,04

-10,84

0

0

-1,10

-0,99

Mmax Nco Mmax Nco Mmax Nco Qco
1+2 1+3+9+13 1+2
155,3 1386,5 86,51 1991 45,11 1687,3 26,29
min Nco min Nco min Nco Qco
1+5+9+13 1+4

1+7+

11+15

1+7+

11+15

-93,94 1041,8 -153,8 1162 -163,1 1484,1 11,9
co Nmax co Nmax co Nco Qco
1+3+7 1+3+9+13+7 1+3+9+13+5
117,5 1352,0 55,65 1991 -30,83 2171,6 5,43
N N N Q
1+2 1+2 1+2
155,3 1386,5 -91,7 1506 45,11 1687,3 26,29

4. .

: 15, , Rb=8,5; Rbt=0,75; b=20,510³ . III, d>10, Rs=Rsc=365, s=210³ .

1 0 .

b h=50 60 =¢=4, h0=h-a=60-4=56. 2 .

1- 2-
, * 155,32 -93,94
N, 1386,5 1041,8

L=86,11*; NL=1041,8. 1- 2- Rb gb2=1,1, , , . - . s s¢.

1.       , , :

- :

II=1=tot + Ntot * (h0 -a¢)/2=155,32+1386,5*(0,56-0,04)/2 =515,8*

- :

I=M1L=ML + NL * (h0-a¢)/2=86,11+1041,8*(0,56-0,04)/2=356,98*.

2.       :

0=tot ≥ a, a :

tot

a ≥ 1 * i = 380 = 0,63; a ≥ 1 *h = 60/ 30 = 2; a ≥ 1.

600 600 600

0 = = 155,32 =11,2 ≥ a

N 1386,5

3. :

l = i , l > 4 (h > 1)

h

i= 22 = 2*3,8 ≥ 7,6; l = 760 / 60 = 12,7 0,2% → s¢

.

4.   d:

d = i ≥ d,min=0,5-0,01* i - 0,01R * gb2 =0,5-0,01*760 - 0,01*1,1*8,5=

h h 60

=0,28; d = 11,2 / 60 = 0,187 < d,min d = 0,28

5.   , :

jl = 1 + b * 1L = 1 + 1*356,98 = 1,69 ≤ (1 + b ) = 2

1 515,8

6.   :

m = s + s¢ = (1 2,5%) = (0,01 0,025)

m = 0,004

7. a: a = s = 200000 = 9,77

b 20500

8.   :

Ncr = 6,4*Eb é I æ 0,11 + 0,1ö + aIsù =

i20 ë jl è 0,1 + dj ø û

= 6,4*20500(100) é 900000 æ 0,11 +0,1ö + 9,77*7571,2 ù =

760² ë 1,69 è 0,1 + 0,28 ø û

= 63,94*10³ = 6394.

I = b*h³ = 50 * 60³ = 9000004;

12 12

Is = m* b*ho (0,5h )² = 0,004 * 50 * 56 (0,5*60 4)² = 7571,24

9.   h, :

h = 1 = 1 = 1,28

1 Ntot/ Ncr 1 1386,5/6394

10. , , , :

= 0 * h + ho - ¢ = 11,2 * 1,28 + 56 4 = 40,34젠

2 2

11. = Ntot = 1386,5 =

R * gb2* b 8,5*1,1*50

= 29,66².

x = / ho = 29,66 / 56 = 0,53

xR = w / é1 + Rs æ1 - w öù = 0,7752 / é1+ 365 æ1 0,7752ö ù = 0,611

ë 4 è 1,1øû ë 400è 1,1ø û

w = 0,85 0,008* R * gb2 = 0,85 0,008*8,5*1,1 = 0,7752

x =0,53 < xR =0,611 , :

s¢ = Ntot * 0,4* R* gb2* b*h² = 1386,5*40,34 0,4*8,5*1,1*60*56²=

Rsc (ho - ¢) 356*(56 4)

= - 35² < 0

s¢< 0, , .. i/h =12,7

10 < i/h ≤ 24, min % 0,2% .. 0,002 s¢.

0,002 * b* h = 5,6 ² = s¢ 3Ø16 III s = 6,03 ².

s = 0,55 * R* gb2* b*h Ntot + s¢= 0,55*8,5*1,1*50*56 - 1386,5 = 1,5

Rs 356

.

.

1.   m = s + s¢ = 6,03 + 1,57 = 0,0025

b* h 3000

2. :

=Ntot + Rs*s Rsc*s¢=1042+365*103 *6,03*10-4 365*103*1,57*10-4=

R* gb2* b 1,1 * 8,5*103 * 0,5

= 1204,8 = 0,26

4675

2.   xR * h = 0,611* 56 = 34,22

< xR * h (0,26 < 34,22) , :

Ntot * £ R* gb2* b * (h 0,5*) + Rsc * s¢( h - ¢)

= tot = 94 = 0,09

Ntot 1042

II=1=tot + Ntot * (h0 -a¢)/2= - 94 + 1042 * 0,26 =176,92 * I=M1L=ML + NL * (h0-a¢)/2=86,11+1041,8*(0,56-0,04)/2=356,98*젠

jl = 1 + b * 1L = 1 + 1*356,98 = 2,02 ≤ (1 + b ) = 2 jl > 2

1 176,92

җ jl = 2

Ncr = 6,4*Eb é I æ 0,11 + 0,1ö + aIsù =

i20 ë jl è 0,1 + dj ø û

= 6,4*20500(100) é 900000 æ 0,11 +0,1ö + 9,77*7571,2 ù =

760² ë 2 è 0,1 + 0,28 ø û

= 63,94*10³ = > Ntot = 1042

h = 1 = 1 = 1,2

1 Ntot/ Ncr 1 1042 / 6394

= 0 * h + ho - ¢ = 0,09 * 1,2 + 56 4 = 26,11젠

2 2

1042 * 0,2611 £ 8,5 * 103 * 1,1 * 0,5 * 0,003 (0,56-0,5 * 0,003) + 365 * 103 * 0,000603 (0,56-0,04)

272,07 * < 122,3 * .

1-0 , , , i¢ / h¢ = 5,7 / 0,5 = 11,4, i¢=1,52=1,5*3,8 = 5,7 < i / h = 12,7.

h¢ = b .

5. .

: .

R = 0,36 (360/²)

d = 1,7 ( ). 12,5, II.

.

2 - 1 :

max = 45,11 *젠 N = 1687,32 ͠ Q = 26,39

min = - 163,13 *젠 N = 1484,12 ͠ Q = 11,9

Nmax = 2171,65 ͠ M = - 30,83 *젠 Q = 5,43

, :

n = 39,23 *젠 Nn = 1467,23 ͠ Qn = 22,86

n = - 141,85 *젠 Nn = 1290,54 ͠ Qn = 10,35

Nn = 1888,4 ͠ n = - 26,81 *젠 Qn = 4,72

Nw = 74,5 ͠ = 0,525 = 52,5

w = - 74,5*0,525 = - 39,11*젠 wn = - 34,0 *

, , :

-

= 4 + Q4 * hf + w = 45,11 + 26,29*1,55 39,11 = 46,75 *

hf = 1,7 0,15 = 1,55;

N = N4 + Nw = 1687,32 + 74,5 = 1761,82

- :

= - 163,13 + 11,9*1,55 39,11 = - 183,8 *

N = 1484,12 + 74,5 = 1558,62

- :

= - 30,83 + 5,43*1,55 39,11 = - 61,52 *

N = 2171,65 + 74,5 = 2246,15

, :

n = 39,23 + 22,86*1,55 34 = 40,66 *

Nn = 1467,23 + 64,78 = 1532

n = - 141,85 +10,35 *1,55 34 = -159,81 *

Nn = 1290,54 + 64,78 = 1355,32

n = -26,81 + 4,72 *1,55 34 = -53,49 *

Nn = 1888,4 + 64,78 = 1953,18

.

Nmax n gn = 0,95

= Nn * gn = 1953,18 * 0,95 = 5,69 2

R d*gm 360 1,7 * 20

R = 360/² gm = 20 /³

b/ = 0,8, :

f = √ 5,69 / 0,8 = 2,67 젠 bf = 0,8 * 2,67 = 2,14

, ≈ 10-15%; 젠 f bf = 3,02,7 ( 30); = 3 2,7 = 8,1 2

Wf = 2,7 * 32 / 6 = 4,05 3

2, 1,

R = R0 é1+k1 æ bf b0öù*æd + d0 ö = 0,36 é1+0,05 æ 2,7 - 1öù*æ1,7+2 ö=0,361

ë è b0 øû è 2d0 ø ë è 1 øû è 2 * 2 ø

k1 = 0,05 : b0 = 1, d0 = 2; d = 1,7; bf = 2,7.

.

Gnf = af * bf * d * gm = 2,7*3*1,7*20 = 275,4 ;

Gf = Gnf * gf = 302,94 .

, :

-

0 = n / (Nn + Gnf) = 40,66 / (1532 + 275,4) = 0,022

-

0 = - 159,81 / (1355,32 + 275,4) = - 0,098

-

0 = - 53,49 / (1953,18 + 275,4) = - 0,024

0 = 0,022 < af / 6 = 3 / 6 = 0,5 ,

-

1 = Nnf*gn æ1+ 6 0 ö = 1807,4*0,95 æ1 + 6 * 0,022 ö = 221,3 /2

f * bf è f ø 2,7* 3 è 3 ø

1,2R = 421 /2; Nnf = Nn + Gnf =1532+275,4= 1807,4

2 = 1807,4*0,95 æ1 - 6 * 0,022 ö = 202,65 /2 < 0,8 R = 281 /2

2,7* 3 è 3 ø

-

Nnf = 1355,32 + 275,4 = 1630,72

1 = 1630,72*0,95 æ1 + 6 * (-0,098) ö = 153,77 /2 < 1,2 R = 421 /2

2,7* 3 è 3 ø

2 = 1630,72*0,95 æ1 - 6 * (-0,098) ö = 228,74 /2 < 0,8 R = 281 /2

2,7* 3 è 3 ø

-

Nnf = 1953,18 + 275,4 = 2228,58

1 = 2228,58*0,95 æ1 + 6 * (-0,024) ö = 248,8 /2 < 1,2 R = 421 /2

2,7* 3 è 3 ø

2 = 2228,58*0,95 æ1 - 6 * (-0,024) ö = 273,9 /2 < 0,8 R = 281 /2

2,7* 3 è 3 ø

0 = 0,022 < 0,1f = 0,1*3=0,3 , , .

.

h = 800, h ³ 30d1 + d = 30 * 18 + 50 = 590 ( d1= 18 ).

225 75 , :

= h + 2*225 + 2*75 = 800 + 450 + 150 = 1400

b = b + 2*225 + 2*75 = 500 + 450 + 150 = 1100

h = 800, 300 .

, 1=4+Q4*h - w = 45,11+26,29*0,839,11=27,03*

01 = 1 = 27,03 = 0,015 < h = 0,8 = 0,13

N 1761,82 6 6

.

50, b = b¢= 6c. s

= 01 + / 2 = 0,015 + 1,4/2 0,06 = 0,655 = 65,5

s = s¢= gn * N* Rb* gb2* S0 = 0,95*1761820*65,5 7,5(100)*1,1*17,2=

Rs * z 280(100)*128

zs = b - b¢=140 6 6 = 128;

S0 = 0,5 (b * h2 * b * zs) = 0,5 (110*1942 - 90*60*128)=17,2*105 3

= 900, b = 600 ; Rb = 7,5 12,5; gb2 = 1,1

s = s¢= - 365,3 < 0.

m = 0,001:

s = s¢= 0,001 b = 0,001(140*110 90*60) = 10 2

7 Æ14 II, s = 10,77 2

.

-3 -I, S=150 < h / 4 = 800 / 4 = 250 . -2 -3 .

= 01 = 0,015 < h / 2 = 0,8 / 2 = 0,4 =0,015 , sw : sw = 0,8 [ + Qh¢ - Nhc/2 Gw( + )] gn =

Rs * åz

= 0,8 [45,11+26,29*0,75-1761,82*0,4-74,5(0,525+0,015)]*0,95 < 0

225*103*2,8

h¢ = h - d = 800 5 = 95 ; Rs = 225 = 225*103 /3 -I; åz , :

åz = 0,05+0,25+0,4+0,55+0,7+0,85 = 2,8

蠠 Æ8 ࠠ -I.

.

. , , :

1 = æN + ögn = æ2228,58 + (-61,52) ö*0,95 = 246,94 /2;

èf Wf ø è 8,1 4,05 ø

2 = æN - ̠ ögn = æ2228,58 - (-61,52) ö*0,95 = 275,8 /2;

èf Wf ø è 8,1 4,05 ø

:


h ³ - b + + 1 N + æ b + ö2

4 2 Ö k*Rbt*gb2+psf è 2 ø

psf = 1 = 247 /2 k = 1;

Rbt*gb2 = 1,1*0,66 = 0,726 = 726 /2;

N = 1(f * bf * b) = 247 (3*2,7 1,1*1,4) = 1620

h ³ - 1,2 + 1,4 + 1 1620 + æ 1,1 + 1,4 ö2 = 0,25

4 2 Ö 1*726+247 è 2 ø

h=60, 30 , h = h = 60 5 = 55 .

f.

1-1, b

1-1 = 1*12* bf / 2 = 243,1*0,82*2,7/2 = 210 * = 210*105 *

1= 0,5(1 + 1-1) = 0,5(246,94 + 239,24) = 243,1 /2

1-1= 1 (1 2) 1 / f = 246,94 (246,94 275,8) * 0,95 / 3=239,24 /2

s = 1 = 210*105 = 15,22

0,9 Rs * b 0,9*280(100)*55

S = 200 , bf = 2,7 젠 14 ; 16 Æ12 -II, s = 15,83 2

:

m = 15,83 * 100 = 0,11% > mmin = 0,1%

270*55

2-2, ,

2-2 = 2* 22 * bf = 247,89*0,22 * 2,7 = 13,4 *

2                                        2

2 = 0,5 (1 + 2-2) = 0,5 (246,94 + 248,84) = 247,89 /2

2-2= 1 (1 2) 2 / f = 246,94 (246,94 275,49) *0,2 / 3 = 248,84/2

s = 2 = 13,4*105 = 2,132

0,9 Rs * b 0,9*280(100)*25

bf.

= 0,5 (1 + 2) = 0,5 (246,94 + 275,49) = 261,2 /2

3-3, ,

3-3 = * b12 * f = 261,2 * 0,82 * 3 = 250,75 *

2                                    2

s = 3 = 250,75*105 = 18,12

0,9 Rs * b 0,9*280(100)*55

200 f = 3젠 17 Æ12 -II,

s = 19,23 2

:

m = 19,23 * 100 = 0,12% > mmin = 0,1%

300*55

6.

.

36., 12. .

-7 Æ15 :

Rs,ser = 12950 ; Rs = 1080 ; s = 180000 .

-III; Rs = Rs = 365 (d > 10);s = 200000 ;

-I, Rs = Rs = 225 ; Rsw = 175 . 40; Rb = 22 ; Rbt = 1,4 ; Rbtn = 2,1 ; gb2 = 0,9; Eb = 32500 .

1.   .

, ( ) 3. 3., . 2- : 1) ( III 0,3). 180 , .

.

gf > 1

,

:

(.. 2.1)

3 12 .

180/(36*12)

950

2050

417

1,3-1,2

1,1

1,1

1195

2255

458

3417 3908

:

( 1500*0,8)

0,3

(0,3*1500*0,8)

1200

360

1,4

1,4

1680

504

, : F1=g*a*b*gn = 3,908*12*3*0,95=133,65; () F2 = 1,68*1,2*3*0,95 = 57,46;

F3 = 0,504*12*3*0,95 = 17,24

, :

Fn1 = 3,417*12*3*0,95 = 116,86; Fn2 = 1,2*12*3*0,95 = 41,04;

Fn3 = 0,36*12*3*0,95 = 12,31.

.

. , . , , ,

gi = 1,15. ; + , - .

Fi. .

.

, , F=1

:

1

2

3

4

5

6

2 3

3 4

4 6

6 8

8 9

9 11

0

- 6,99

- 6,99

- 11,28

- 11,28

- 12,7

:

1

2

3

1 5

5 7

7 10

3,78

9,49

12,35

:

1

2

3

4

5

6

1 3

3 5

5 6

6 7

7 9

9 10

- 6,66

5,53

- 4,3

3,07

- 1,84

0,611

:

1

2

3

4

1 2

4 5

7 8

10 11

- 0,5

- 1

- 1

- 1

.

1. .

( 6)

N = 2427 , N = 1916 . 12 300. :

= N = 2427100 = 920,75 ²

0,8(Rb + 0,03Rs) 0,8(22(100)+0,03*365(100))

b h = 30 35 젠

=1050 ² > 920,75 ².

a ³ 1 = 300 = 0,5;

600       600

1 = 300 ; a ³ h = 35 = 1,17;

30       30

a ³ 1 . a < 1/8 h = 35/8 = 4,37 ; l0 = 0,9l = 270 .

l0 / h = 270 / 35 = 7,71 > 4.

.

Ncr = 6,4 Eb é J ì 0,11 + 0,1 ü + aJs ù =

l0² ë j î 0,1+d þ û

6,4*32500(100) é107187,5ì 0,11 + 0,1 ü + 6,154*4068 ù = 24100000

270² ë 0,79 î 0,1+0,225 þ û

=24100, J = b*h³ = 30 * 35³ = 107187,5 4;

12 12

j = 1 + β * 1L / 1 = 1 + 1 * 258,66 / 327,65 = 0,79, β=1( )

1L = L + NL (h0 ) / 2 = 0 + 1916 (0,31 0,04) / 2 = 258,66*;

1 = 0 + 2427 (0,31 -0,04) / 2 = 327,65 *;

d = l0 / h = 1,17 / 35 = 0,03; d,min = 0,5 0,01* (270 / 35) 0,01*0,9*22 = = 0,225; d < d,min 򠠠 d = 0,225.

a = s / b = 2000000 / 32500 = 6,154; = 0,024 ( ) Js = *b*h0 (0,5h a)² = 0,024 * 30 * 31 (0,5*35-4)² = 4068 4

h = 1 / (1- N / Ncr) = 1/ (1-2427 / 24100) = 1,11

= * h + 0,5 h = 1,17*1,11+0,5*35 - 4 = 14,8 .

gb2 = 0,9

xR = 0,6916 / é1 + 365 æ 1 0,6916 ö ù = 0,544

ë 500 è 1,1 ø û

w = 0,85 0,008 * gb2 Rb = 0,85 0,008 * 0,9 * 22 = 0,6916;

ss1 = Rs = 365

an = N = 2427(100) = 1,318 > xR = 0,544

Rb*b*h0 0,9*22*100*30*31

d = / h = 4 / 36 = 0,13

as = 1,318 (14,8 / 31 1 + 1,318 / 2) =0,207

1 0,13

x = 1,308 (1 0,544) + 2 * 0,207 * 0,544 = 0,948 > xR = 0,544

1 0,544 + 2 * 0,207

s = s¢ = 2427(1000)*14,8/36 (0,948/1,318) (1 0,948/2) = 7,49 ²

365(100) (1 0,13)

= (s + s¢) = 2*7,49 = 0,016

b*h0 30*31

. : 6 Æ18 -III s = 15,27².

, .

.

3.

Nn = 1950,1 ; N = 1595,25 , N=2360,2.

:

sp = N = 2360200 = 19 ²,

gsb * Rs 1,15*1080(100)

16 Æ15 -7, = 22,656 ² ( ), 3035. . -III (6 Æ10 -III s = 4,71 ²). , = (s + s¢) = 22,656*4,71 * 100% = 2,606%

b*h0 30*35

red = + Σ = 30*35 + 22,656*5,54 + 4,71*6,15 = 1204 ²,

a1= s / b = 180000 /32500 = 5,54; a2 = 200000 / 32500 = 6,15 ( -III).

.

3- . . ss = 0,05ss ss + ≤ As,ser;

ss + 0,05ss ≤ 1295 ; ss 1295 / 1,05 = 1233,3 . ss=1200.

gs=1. :

s1=[0,22 (ss /Rs,ser) 0,1] ss = [0,22(1200 / 1295) 0,1]1200 = 124,6 ;

( Δt = 65˚)

s2= 1,25* Δt = 1,25 * 65 = 81,25 ;

s3= b * / ι = 180000*0,35 / 2500 = 25,2 ;

Δι = 1,25 + 0,15d = 1,25 + 0,15 * 1,5 = 3,5 ;

sbp / Rbp = 18,23 / 28 = 0,65 < a = 0,75

s6= 40 * 0,85 * sbp / Rbp = 40 * 0,85 *0,65 = 22,1 ,

sbp = 1 / red = 2195,3 (1000) / 1204 = 1823,3 /² = 18,23 ;

1= As (ss - s1 - s2 - s3 ) = 22,656 (1200 124,6 81,25 25,2) (100) = =2195,3 ; 0,85 , .

scos1 = s1 + s2 + s3 + s6 = 124,6 + 81,25 + 25,2 + 22,1 = 253,15

:

40, , s8=40;

sbp / Rbp = 0,65 < 0,75 s9 = 150asbp / Rbp = 150*0,85*0,65 = 82,88 ; sbp = 2145,2(100) / 1204 = 178,17 /2 = 17,82 ࠠ 1=22,656 (1200-253,15) (100) = 2145,2 , a = 0,85 , .

scos2 = s8 + s9 = 40 + 82,88 = 122,88 .

scos = s cos1 + s cos2 = 253,15 + 122,88 = 376,03

Δγsp = 0,5 Р æ1 + 1 ö=0,5 0,05 ssp æ1 + 1 ö= 0,0309

ssp è Ö𠠠 ssp è Ö18ø

= 0,05*ssp, = 18 (18 Æ15 -7). Δγsp = 0,0309 < 0,1, Δγsp = 0,1.

γsp = 1 - Δγsp = 1-0,1 = 0,9; = sp (ssp - scos)* γsp (s6 + s8 + s9)*s1 = 22,656 (1200 376,03 )* 0,9 (22,1 + 40 + 82,88)* 4,71 = 16118 *² = 1611,8 .

, ;

Ncrc = [Rbt,ser (A + 2αAsp) + P] = 0,85 [2,1(10-1)*(105 + 2*5,54*22,656) + 1611,8] = 1433 , γi = 0,85 , .

Ncrc = 1433 < 1950,1 = N , .

.

, γi = 1,15 . :

ss = N = 1950,1 1798,5 = 6,7 /² = 67 ,

Asp 22,656

= γsp* [(ssp - scos)* Asp - (s6 + s8 + s9)*s] =

= 1*[(1200 376,03)*22,656 (22,1 + 40 + 82,88)*4,71]*(100) = 1798500 = 1798,5 .

.

ssi = 1595,25 1798,5 £ 0, ,

9,91

(N1 = 1595,25 ).

: crc1 = γi *20*(3,5 100*m)*d*jl*h*ss *3Öd =

s

= 1,15*20*(3,5 100*0,022)*1,2*1*1,2* 67 *3Ö15 = 0,04

1,8*105

d - , 1,2; h = 1,2 ;

m = As = 22,656 = 0,022; d = 15 -7.

b*h 30 * 35

acrc = acrc1 - a¢crc1 + acrc2 = 0.04 0 + 0 = 0,04 < 0,15 .

2.

: N = 873,2 , (50% ) N = 714,31 ; N = 1056,84 . 7 Æ15 -7 ( ) = 9,912 2. , . As = 1056,84 (1000) / 1,15*1080(100) = 8,51 2 < 9,912 2. . : 30 20 .

.

Nw = N Nsp Ns

ctg a

Nsp = Rsp*sp*i1 / i = 1080(10-1)*22,656*30 / 92,7 = 791,86

i = i = [wp (ssp / Rbp + lp)]d = [1,25(823,97 / 28 + 25)]*15=926,8

ssp = 1200 376,03 = 823,97

Ns = Rs*s*i1 / i = 365(10-1)*4,71*23 / 16,29 = 242,73

i = [

.

, N = 1056,84 . 2 28, Æ25 -III i = 35d = 35*2,5 = 87,5 .

:

sw ³ Nsw = 1056,84*1æ1 1*28 + 7,5ö

h*Rsw è 1,05*87,5ø = 1,44 2

6 * 290(10-1)*0,8138

Æ6 -I 100 (6 s = 1,7 2).

Ns = 0,04 1 1 = N = 1056,84

Ns = 0,04*1056,84 = 42,274

s = Ns = 42274 = 2,35 2

n*Rso 2*90(100)

Æ18 -III s = 2,545 2

s = 0,2N = 0,2*596860 = 3,27 2

Rs 365(100)

4 Æ12 -III s = 4,52 2

.

1. .., ..

., 1991.

2. .. -

., 1989.

3.

. 1997.

4. 2 堠 軠 . 1997.

5. 2.03.01-84 - .1985.


 
2012 , , .